A Rhapsody in Blue: Selecting and Planting Vaccinium corymbosum, (Highbush Blueberry), Plus a Favorite Recipe for Blueberry-Lemon Bread…

A Rhapsody in Blue 

What would you say if I told you that I know of an amazing cold-hardy shrub, with creamy, bell-like spring flowers, glossy green leaves, brilliant fall foliage, colorful winter stems and an attractive, well-rounded form? Interested yet? It may come as a surprise that the shrub I am describing is none other than the common highbush blueberry, (Vaccinium corymbosum). Of course, the highbush blueberry is widely cultivated for its delicious fruit, but it’s often overlooked as a useful addition to ornamental gardens. Native to eastern North America, this gorgeous shrub can be found growing wild in acidic soil from central Canada all the way down to Florida, with a western range from Minnesota, south to Louisiana. Typically reaching a mature size of 8-12 feet high and wide, highbush blueberries are most commonly found in USDA zones 3-7. Although lowbush blueberries,(Vaccinium angustifolium), are also a fine and quite hardy shrub -famously grown for fruit in the state of Maine- they too are are rarely grown in ornamental gardens. This is a shame, as lowbush blueberries make a fine ground cover, producing pollinator-friendly blossoms and very sweet fruit. They also display beautiful autumn color.

If you live in a climate with lengthy cool seasons, highbush blueberries are easy to cultivate either in the vegetable garden, berry patch or mixed border. This is a relatively long-lived shrub, with few pests and diseases. When provided with the proper conditions, blueberry bushes make fantastic garden plants. Although Vaccinium corymbosum are generally trouble-free, a few growing tips will help increase berry yield and plant health…

Vaccinium corymbosum autumn color

In life, I often find that a group of diverse, mixed company creates great culture. With blueberry varieties this is especially true. When buying plants, keep in mind that for best pollination and fruit set, you should choose two different varieties of blueberry bushes that bloom at the same time. If you would like fruit throughout the season, try growing several different varieties in the same patch. When choosing plants, ask a local grower which varieties grow and produce best in your area. Some excellent early to midseason varieties include ‘Blueray’,’Duke’ and ‘Berkeley’. For later fruit try ‘Jersey Blue’ and ‘Elliot’ varieties. Again, ask your local grower for some recommendations. Remember that every variety will have a slightly different flavor.

When growing blueberries, one of the most important aspects of cultivation to consider is soil acidity. All blueberry bushes prefer a pH below 5, with an ideal range between 4.5 and 4.8. Be sure to test your soil pH with a kit. If your soil is more alkaline (even neutral is too alkaline for blueberries) you may lower the pH by adding sulfur, pine needles and/or other naturally acidic materials both to the soil and as a regular top-dressing in mulch. Blueberries are shallow-rooted plants and they require moist, but well-drained soil. Unless your garden receives at least an inch or two of rain per week, you will want to water your shrubs. The best way to keep soil moist and plants weed-free is to apply a wood chip/pine needle mulch. When planting new blueberry bushes, be sure not to plant too deeply. Keep the top of the pot level even with your existing soil, and add 1/3 peat moss to the planting mix when you backfill the dirt. Be sure to saturate the soil and peat, as well as the planting hole, with water. Do not fertilize your blueberry bushes for 2-3 months after planting. Once the plants are established, use an organic fertilizer in spring at bloom time, and again 3 weeks later while fruit is setting. Plants should not be fertilized later than this, and never in summer  or fall as the shrubs may suffer winter damage on soft wood ….

Fresh washed blueberries from the garden

In general, when grown for fruit, highbush blueberries should have 5-10′ of spacing, (depending upon variety). But if you are planting in rows, space plants 4-5′ apart in rows with 8-10′ separation. Some growers recommend removal of flowers in the first season for a better crop the second year. This is optional. No pruning is needed in the first three years, but in the fourth season, thinning may begin during dormancy, (late winter/very early spring). Remove weak branches, and any branches restricting sunlight and airflow at the center of the shrub. If fruit is your primary goal, aim for 12 healthy, strong canes per plant. The younger wood will produce the best fruit, so choose a good mix of branches, removing older sections each year.

By following these simple tips, delicious and health fruit will soon be on the way! But beware: birds love to eat blueberries too. If you grow Vaccinium corymbosum solely for ornamental value, then maybe you will leave the fruit on these shrubs for our birds to enjoy. However, if you are growing blueberries as a crop -perhaps as a hedging plant in your potager- you must cover the shrubs from the time of fruit set ’til the point of harvest. My father always used tobacco netting on his highbush blueberries, and I tend to recommend it or the modern-day equivalent, Remay. Plastic netting is hazardous to birds and other creatures, and I find Remay or tobacco netting work as well, or better.

And now, what do you say? Shall we use up some of those plump and delicious blue fruits? Oh, of course! Why not? A couple of weeks back, I featured a favorite recipe for Blueberry Hill Hotcakes and Syrup. They are scrumptious. Over the weekend, I was feeling the blues again, (maybe it was all the rain?). So I took to the kitchen. But this time around, I whipped up my favorite blueberry-lemon bread. This versatile recipe can also be used as a muffin mix, if you’re in the mood for a tasty-treat to-go. The lemony-sugar-syrup is optional, but I find it provides an extra bit of moisture and an added kiss of sweetness – plus I love the shimmery-effect on top. And although frozen blueberries work well here… there’s nothing quite like the fresh berries we will be enjoying later in the year. On a quiet weekend morning, I’m always in the mood for a rhapsody in blue…

Blueberry-Lemon-Bread-Muffins-thegardenersedenBlueberry Lemon Bread / Muffins, photo © 2010 Michaela at TGE

Blueberry-Lemon Bread with Lemon Syrup (or muffins)

Ingredients for one loaf of bread or one dozen average sized muffins:

2          cups all-purpose flour

1          teaspoon baking powder

1          teaspoon baking soda

1/4       teaspoon salt

1/4       cup sugar

2          eggs

1 1/4   cup sour cream

1/4      cup melted butter

1          tablespoon fresh lemon zest

2          cups of fresh or frozen blueberries

Lemon Syrup:

1/2      cup fresh squeezed lemon juice

1/2      cup of sugar

4          tablespoons water


Preheat oven to 375°. Butter one 9″ x 5″ x 3″ bread pan or two muffin tins.

To make batter: Toss flour, baking powder, baking soda and salt in a small bowl. In a larger bowl, combine eggs, sugar, sour cream, melted butter and lemon zest and beat until well mixed. Add dry ingredients to wet and mix until just blended. Add blueberries and stir lightly to combine.

Pour the batter into the bread pan or muffin tins, (each muffin tin should be filled to 2/3 full). Bake bread for 50 minutes to 1 hour or until top is golden brown and a wooden stick comes out clean after inserted at center. If baking muffins, 15-20 minutes in the hot oven should do the trick.

To make the optional lemon syrup: combine the ingredients in a small saucepan and boil for 1 minute. Remove from heat and set aside.

After removing bread or muffins from the oven, prick the top with wooden stick, (all over for bread, or in 3 or 4 places per muffin). Drizzle the lemon-syrup slowly over the surface. Allow the lemon-bread or muffins to cool for 10 or 15 minutes before slicing or removing from the tins.

Serve warm with Earl Grey tea and fresh blueberries if they are in season. If you skip the syrup, the muffins also taste great with a bit of butter and honey.

Mixy, mixy…

 For further inspiration, there’s always…

Gershwin: Rhapsody In Blue/An American In Paris

Photography & Text ⓒ Michaela Medina Harlow/The Gardener’s Eden. All images, articles and content on this site (with noted exceptions), are the original, copyrighted property of The Gardener’s Eden and may not be reposted, reproduced or used in any way without prior written consent. Contact information is in the left side bar. Please do not take my photographs without asking first. Thank you! 

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11 Replies to “A Rhapsody in Blue: Selecting and Planting Vaccinium corymbosum, (Highbush Blueberry), Plus a Favorite Recipe for Blueberry-Lemon Bread…”

  1. Laurrie

    Those blueberry closeups look like semiprecious gems — add some pearls and you can have a necklace!

    I have such hopes for my 4 young Northblue this year (I got all one kind because they are self fertile, and they did fruit prodigiously). They got a leaf problem at the end of last summer, and dropped before any red appeared. Can’t wait to see them this year, and will post on them. I’m following all your advice, including non-plastic netting — used it last year, ick. Thanks for a very helpful article!

  2. Michaela

    Hello Laurrie,
    Thanks for the photo encouragement. Wouldn’t that be beautiful? A blueberry necklace sounds perfect for Demeter, or perhaps her daughter Penelope !
    I think Northblue may be a hybrid, (highbush x lowbush). The hybrids have a reputation for being extremely cold-hardy and productive. They also have more sweetness, as V. angustifolium. I wonder, did your leaves have spotting or yellowing before they dropped?
    Good luck this year. Hopefully we’ll get a break on the precip !

  3. Laurrie

    Michaela, yes, my blueberry leaves got little black spots, then the leaves kind of disappeared in September, after our wet New England summer. Same thing happened to my paper birches. I’m thinking it was the weather. Not sure what to do if we have another wet one… hair dryers in the garden?

  4. Deb Weyrich-Cody

    Hi Michaela,
    Reading this transported me. Instantly I feel the heat of sun on skin, inhale the scent of super heated pine needles and crispy lichens I’ve crushed under my sneakered feet while scrambling over massive rock formations scraped bare millenia ago by the glaciers. We are searching, as we go, for the tiny dusty-blue treasures hidden in the shade of these incredibly tough bushes. Listening, under the grasshopper’s screech, for any sign of the bears who love the berries as much as we do.

  5. Michaela

    Hi Laurrie, sorry for the delayed reply. I am swamped with work in early April !
    I asked about the spot because I was worried about fungal infection,(or even bacterial), which could return if last years leaves are still hanging about at the base of the blueberry bush. I usually tell people to remove the old mulch entirely after an infection, and replace with clean, fresh mulch. Keep the area clear of litter, and be sure to clean your pruners with rubbing alcohol between shrubs. I would also suggest an organic fungicide, applied to the base and mulch, especially after rains. Once fungal infections turn up, they can often be difficult to get rid of, { sort of like, um, athletes foot in a boy’s locker room :) } So, as long as you are using something organic, I would apply it preventatively this year.
    Hopefully we will get less rain, and that will help with a host of problems, including the plague of all tomatoes and potatoes: the dread late blight.
    Enjoy the weather! xo Michaela

  6. Deb Weyrich-Cody

    Hi Michaela and Laurrie,
    I found this recipe in the “Guide to a Healthy Lawn and Garden”, printed by the Town of Tillsonburg, Ontario when they were one of the first communities in our province to ban the cosmetic use of pesticides.
    The recipe… Black Spot/Rose Fungicide-100 parts water, 1 part baking soda, 1-2 drops dish soap (can be made up to ratio of 20 parts water to 1 part baking soda.) Be sure to shake often to maintain suspension… comes from a fellow I call “my Gardening Guru”, Ed Lawrence. (No offence Michaela, I’ve been listening to Ed’s answers to gardening questions for years Monday afternoons at 1:00 on CBC Radio’s “Ontario Today”, but after him you’re definitely next on my list of “gardening-go-to” people.) Anyway this little booklet is chock full of organic gardening/lawn maintenance info and definitely worth a read. (Sorry the address is five miles long)

  7. Deb Weyrich-Cody

    Wow, that did some really weird stuff on my computer screen. Gee, I hope it fit into your blog space.

    Deb xo

  8. Michaela

    Hi Deb, you must have sent two comments? One of them is lodged in spam … I think. Maybe there is an internal link, (program kicks those out). I am going to try to fish it from purgatory, but sometimes the code gets messed up. I haven’t read it yet.


Comments are closed.