A Rhapsody in Blue: Selecting and Planting Vaccinium corymbosum, (Highbush Blueberry), Plus a Favorite Recipe for Blueberry-Lemon Bread…

March 31st, 2010 § 11 comments § permalink

A Rhapsody in Blue 

What would you say if I told you that I know of an amazing cold-hardy shrub, with creamy, bell-like spring flowers, glossy green leaves, brilliant fall foliage, colorful winter stems and an attractive, well-rounded form? Interested yet? It may come as a surprise that the shrub I am describing is none other than the common highbush blueberry, (Vaccinium corymbosum). Of course, the highbush blueberry is widely cultivated for its delicious fruit, but it’s often overlooked as a useful addition to ornamental gardens. Native to eastern North America, this gorgeous shrub can be found growing wild in acidic soil from central Canada all the way down to Florida, with a western range from Minnesota, south to Louisiana. Typically reaching a mature size of 8-12 feet high and wide, highbush blueberries are most commonly found in USDA zones 3-7. Although lowbush blueberries,(Vaccinium angustifolium), are also a fine and quite hardy shrub -famously grown for fruit in the state of Maine- they too are are rarely grown in ornamental gardens. This is a shame, as lowbush blueberries make a fine ground cover, producing pollinator-friendly blossoms and very sweet fruit. They also display beautiful autumn color.

If you live in a climate with lengthy cool seasons, highbush blueberries are easy to cultivate either in the vegetable garden, berry patch or mixed border. This is a relatively long-lived shrub, with few pests and diseases. When provided with the proper conditions, blueberry bushes make fantastic garden plants. Although Vaccinium corymbosum are generally trouble-free, a few growing tips will help increase berry yield and plant health…

Vaccinium corymbosum autumn color

In life, I often find that a group of diverse, mixed company creates great culture. With blueberry varieties this is especially true. When buying plants, keep in mind that for best pollination and fruit set, you should choose two different varieties of blueberry bushes that bloom at the same time. If you would like fruit throughout the season, try growing several different varieties in the same patch. When choosing plants, ask a local grower which varieties grow and produce best in your area. Some excellent early to midseason varieties include ‘Blueray’,’Duke’ and ‘Berkeley’. For later fruit try ‘Jersey Blue’ and ‘Elliot’ varieties. Again, ask your local grower for some recommendations. Remember that every variety will have a slightly different flavor.

When growing blueberries, one of the most important aspects of cultivation to consider is soil acidity. All blueberry bushes prefer a pH below 5, with an ideal range between 4.5 and 4.8. Be sure to test your soil pH with a kit. If your soil is more alkaline (even neutral is too alkaline for blueberries) you may lower the pH by adding sulfur, pine needles and/or other naturally acidic materials both to the soil and as a regular top-dressing in mulch. Blueberries are shallow-rooted plants and they require moist, but well-drained soil. Unless your garden receives at least an inch or two of rain per week, you will want to water your shrubs. The best way to keep soil moist and plants weed-free is to apply a wood chip/pine needle mulch. When planting new blueberry bushes, be sure not to plant too deeply. Keep the top of the pot level even with your existing soil, and add 1/3 peat moss to the planting mix when you backfill the dirt. Be sure to saturate the soil and peat, as well as the planting hole, with water. Do not fertilize your blueberry bushes for 2-3 months after planting. Once the plants are established, use an organic fertilizer in spring at bloom time, and again 3 weeks later while fruit is setting. Plants should not be fertilized later than this, and never in summer  or fall as the shrubs may suffer winter damage on soft wood ….

Fresh washed blueberries from the garden

In general, when grown for fruit, highbush blueberries should have 5-10′ of spacing, (depending upon variety). But if you are planting in rows, space plants 4-5′ apart in rows with 8-10′ separation. Some growers recommend removal of flowers in the first season for a better crop the second year. This is optional. No pruning is needed in the first three years, but in the fourth season, thinning may begin during dormancy, (late winter/very early spring). Remove weak branches, and any branches restricting sunlight and airflow at the center of the shrub. If fruit is your primary goal, aim for 12 healthy, strong canes per plant. The younger wood will produce the best fruit, so choose a good mix of branches, removing older sections each year.

By following these simple tips, delicious and health fruit will soon be on the way! But beware: birds love to eat blueberries too. If you grow Vaccinium corymbosum solely for ornamental value, then maybe you will leave the fruit on these shrubs for our birds to enjoy. However, if you are growing blueberries as a crop -perhaps as a hedging plant in your potager- you must cover the shrubs from the time of fruit set ’til the point of harvest. My father always used tobacco netting on his highbush blueberries, and I tend to recommend it or the modern-day equivalent, Remay. Plastic netting is hazardous to birds and other creatures, and I find Remay or tobacco netting work as well, or better.

And now, what do you say? Shall we use up some of those plump and delicious blue fruits? Oh, of course! Why not? A couple of weeks back, I featured a favorite recipe for Blueberry Hill Hotcakes and Syrup. They are scrumptious. Over the weekend, I was feeling the blues again, (maybe it was all the rain?). So I took to the kitchen. But this time around, I whipped up my favorite blueberry-lemon bread. This versatile recipe can also be used as a muffin mix, if you’re in the mood for a tasty-treat to-go. The lemony-sugar-syrup is optional, but I find it provides an extra bit of moisture and an added kiss of sweetness – plus I love the shimmery-effect on top. And although frozen blueberries work well here… there’s nothing quite like the fresh berries we will be enjoying later in the year. On a quiet weekend morning, I’m always in the mood for a rhapsody in blue…

Blueberry-Lemon-Bread-Muffins-thegardenersedenBlueberry Lemon Bread / Muffins, photo © 2010 Michaela at TGE

Blueberry-Lemon Bread with Lemon Syrup (or muffins)

Ingredients for one loaf of bread or one dozen average sized muffins:

2          cups all-purpose flour

1          teaspoon baking powder

1          teaspoon baking soda

1/4       teaspoon salt

1/4       cup sugar

2          eggs

1 1/4   cup sour cream

1/4      cup melted butter

1          tablespoon fresh lemon zest

2          cups of fresh or frozen blueberries

Lemon Syrup:

1/2      cup fresh squeezed lemon juice

1/2      cup of sugar

4          tablespoons water


Preheat oven to 375°. Butter one 9″ x 5″ x 3″ bread pan or two muffin tins.

To make batter: Toss flour, baking powder, baking soda and salt in a small bowl. In a larger bowl, combine eggs, sugar, sour cream, melted butter and lemon zest and beat until well mixed. Add dry ingredients to wet and mix until just blended. Add blueberries and stir lightly to combine.

Pour the batter into the bread pan or muffin tins, (each muffin tin should be filled to 2/3 full). Bake bread for 50 minutes to 1 hour or until top is golden brown and a wooden stick comes out clean after inserted at center. If baking muffins, 15-20 minutes in the hot oven should do the trick.

To make the optional lemon syrup: combine the ingredients in a small saucepan and boil for 1 minute. Remove from heat and set aside.

After removing bread or muffins from the oven, prick the top with wooden stick, (all over for bread, or in 3 or 4 places per muffin). Drizzle the lemon-syrup slowly over the surface. Allow the lemon-bread or muffins to cool for 10 or 15 minutes before slicing or removing from the tins.

Serve warm with Earl Grey tea and fresh blueberries if they are in season. If you skip the syrup, the muffins also taste great with a bit of butter and honey.

Mixy, mixy…

 For further inspiration, there’s always…

Gershwin: Rhapsody In Blue/An American In Paris

Photography & Text ⓒ Michaela Medina Harlow/The Gardener’s Eden. All images, articles and content on this site (with noted exceptions), are the original, copyrighted property of The Gardener’s Eden and may not be reposted, reproduced or used in any way without prior written consent. Contact information is in the left side bar. Please do not take my photographs without asking first. Thank you! 

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I Found My Thrill…

March 6th, 2010 § 15 comments § permalink

Blueberry Hill Hot Cakes with Syrup

Some people never make a mess. Seriously. Have you noticed? Well, I don’t know about you, but those folks worry me. I mean, some of the best fun I’ve had in my life has involved mess. And I don’t mean a little mess. I mean a great, big, rip-roaring, sticky, gooey, staining, slobbering mess. Come on… you know what I mean. You love a real knock-down drag-out mess too, don’t you?  Is it not the very definition of a good time?

Almost every single food I love is messy: ripe, juicy peaches; molten chocolate; frosted sticky buns; cheesy chile. But my all time favorites are the stainers – especially the blueberries. On a hot summer afternoon, as you head out swinging your little bucket, you know that you’re gonna eat those berries as fast as you pick ’em. You know it. And you are going to stain your fingers and your t-shirt too. Plus, your teeth are gonna turn blue; dark blue if you are doing it right. And who cares?  It’s so worth it. Then later, when you cook those delicious blueberries, they get all sticky and oozy, and they turn that electric fuchsia color. And the smell – oh my lordy. Is that not heaven? My I do love the blueberries. And woo-hoo, do I have the blotchy blue-stained t-shirts to prove it. Blueberry pie. Blueberry buckle. Blueberry crisp. Half of it usually ends up on my shirt. Who invented the white t-shirt anyway? Mr. Hanes? What a bad idea. I have never been able to keep one clean. Well, I’ve learned to outsmart that bleached kill-joy Hanes. Now I wear BLUE when I am eating blueberries – blue jeans and fuchsia t-shirts. Take that Mr. Tidy-Whitey…

Blue on Blue

Weekends are meant for fun and relaxation. I don’t think they should be uptight. And I’ll tell you another thing: leisurely mornings and Blueberry Hill hot cakes, with their sticky blue-fuchsia syrup, are a match made in heaven. Yes, my blueberries may come from the freezer at this time of year, but the syrup they make is no less delicious. Fresh summertime blueberries are, of course, nirvana. And blueberry bushes, (of the genus Vaccinium), are beautiful, low-maintenance shrubs. Many of you probably grow them already. But for you new gardeners, I plan to write more about selecting, planting and growing blueberries in a few weeks. For now though, I think we should set aside time to practice cooking and baking with frozen blueberries. Wouldn’t you agree?

Yes, I found my thrill. A messy thrill. On Blueberry Hill…

Blueberry Hill Hot Cakes with Syrup

(Inspired by Nigella Lawson and Marion Cunningham )


Ingredients for Hot Cakes (makes about 4 dozen mini pancakes):

4       large eggs

1/2    teaspoon salt

1/2    teaspoon baking soda

1/3    cup cake flour, (this makes light and fluffy hot cakes. use slightly less if your eggs are smaller)

2       cups sour cream, (light or fat-free is OK)

2       tablespoons grade A Vermont maple syrup

1       tablespoon lemon zest

powdered sugar for serving

butter or grease for griddle or skillet

Ingredients for Blueberry Hill Syrup:

1 1/2 cups blueberries (fresh or frozen berries thawed overnight)

1/2    cup grade A Vermont maple syrup


Crack the eggs Into a medium sized mixing bowl and stir them together. When blended well, add the cake flour, salt, baking soda, sour cream, maple syrup and lemon zest. Continue blending until you have a smooth, well-mixed batter. Set aside.

On burner one: Pour the blueberries and 1/2 cup of maple syrup into a small saucepan and bring to a boil. Cook on high heat for a few minutes until the berries start to bubble, then reduce heat, mash the berries just a bit, and simmer for about 5 minutes. Smells good, doesn’t it?

Meanwhile on burner two: Heat a cast iron skillet, griddle or pan. Add a pat or so of butter or your choice of grease. Fill 1/4 cup with batter and slowly pour small, (just a wee bit bigger than the circumference of that quarter cup you are holding), amounts into the pan. When the hot cakes form bubbles, it’s time to flip them over with a spatula and cook them for a couple more minutes. Don’t flatten with your spatula. You want the air!

Portion the hot cakes out on, (white!), plates and ladle on hot blueberry syrup. Look at that gorgeous fuchsia syrup run! Sprinkle with confectioners sugar and serve hot with extra blueberry syrup on the side.

Tiny bubbles in the cast iron skillet say ‘Flip me’…

Heavenly-scented stickiness …

Blueberry Hill Hot Cakes – Go Ahead  – Make a Mess


Want more inspiration? Try this: Louis Armstrong – Blueberry Hill

Article and Photographs copyright 2010 Michaela at The Gardener’s Eden. All rights reserved.

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